- joint injuries or deformities
- other forms of arthritis
- diseases that affect the structure of the cartilage or bone
Here are some common types of injuries or deformities that can lead to osteoarthritis.
- A dislocation of the hip from its socket that occurs at birth, called congenital dislocation.
- A birth defect where the head of the long bone at the top of the leg, called the femur, is unable to move in and out of the so-called cup portion of the hip joint formed by the pelvis. This is called congenital hip dysplasia.
- A fracture or trauma that causes one or more bones that form the joint to be out of place and unable to move properly. This is called general dislocation.
- A condition in which one leg is shorter than the other, called leg-length discrepancy.
- A curvature of the spine to one side, called scoliosis. Other spine deformities can also lead to osteoarthritis.
Other types of arthritis, such as the ones in the following list, can also lead to osteoarthritis.
- Enteric arthritis: A form of arthritis that results from a disease of the gastrointestinal system.
- Gout: A disease associated with high levels of uric acid, a waste product from the kidneys. Uric acid converts to crystals that are then deposited in the joint and other tissues, causing pain, swelling, and inflammation.
- Pseudogout: A form of arthritis that results from calcium crystals in the joint space, which causes pain and inflammation. It most often affects the knees and occurs in people older than age 50.
- Psoriatic arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in a small percentage of people who have the skin disease psoriasis. Psoriasis is characterized by thick, red patches on the skin.
- Reactive/infectious arthritis: A form of arthritis that results from bacteria or other organisms that enter the joint space.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: A type of chronic arthritis that produces a great deal of inflammation in the joints that can be very progressive and can lead to deformities of the joint.
Here are some diseases that can lead to osteoarthritis.
- Acromegaly: A disease that causes the body to produce excess human growth hormone, called GH, which causes the head, face, hands, feet, and organs to gradually increase in size.
- Hemochromatosis: A rare disease caused by faulty iron metabolism, which can lead to iron being deposited throughout the body.
- Hemophilia: An inherited blood disorder that causes a problem with the blood's ability to clot.
- Ochronosis: A disease that results in the darkening of the joint cartilage and other body tissues, which causes the cartilage to break down.
- Paget's disease: A disease that increasingly disrupts normal bone formation, resulting in weak bones and deformities.
- Sickle cell disease: An inherited disorder that results in a reduction of blood cells that can carry oxygen.
- Wilson's disease: A rare disease caused by faulty copper metabolism, which can lead to a buildup of copper throughout the body.