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How Personalized Medicine Works


Ethical Considerations
While knowing you carry genes for a disease can be empowering, there’s a chance you’ll never develop the condition.
While knowing you carry genes for a disease can be empowering, there’s a chance you’ll never develop the condition.
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Would you want to know whether your genome contained information that suggested you were at a greater risk for cancer or disease, even if there's a chance it won't happen?

Knowledge can be empowering, but it can also create challenges when balancing health outcomes. In medical research, biomarkers are not always exact, and just because a person has a predisposition or the right combination of genes for a given health condition doesn't mean he or she will develop it.

For example, some forms of breast cancer are associated with specific genes. If a person knows he or she has the genetic makeup conducive to developing cancer, but it hasn't happened yet, should he or she take action such as having a mastectomy (surgical removal of the breast)? These are ethical debates researchers, doctors and patients are weighing together.

Data created from personalized medicine has become a source of ethical debate, too. To prevent employers and health insurance companies from discriminating against people based on genetic information, the U.S Congress passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act in 2008 [source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission].

Then there's the issue of intellectual property, or determining who owns the rights to findings and data generated from personalized medicine. Because a company finds a biomarker for a specific illness, can that company patent it? That was a real concern just a few years ago, but according to the Supreme Court of the United States, genes with discovered links to disease cannot be patented [source: Liptak].


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