More than 3.5 million pistols, revolvers, shotguns and rifles were manufactured in the United States in 2005 [source: U.S. Department of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives]. The next year, firearms were used in 10,177 homicides [source: FBI]. And a Swiss survey found that in 2007, the United States had 90 guns for every hundred people, a total of 270 million guns. India, the second-most-armed nation in the world, had 45 million. If you don't count the United States, there is one gun for every ten people worldwide. With the United States included, the ratio rises to seven to 10 [source: Reuters].
With all of these guns, it may seem like the chances of being shot are pretty good. In 1997, Americans had a 1 in 2,317 chance of being shot, based on the population and number of gunshot wounds [source: Centers for Disease Control]. So if someone near you pulls out a gun, what should you do?
Ed Sizemore, a firearms specialist at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, says that for the average bystander, retreat is the best idea. If that isn't possible, Sizemore says, take cover. Hiding behind an object that can absorb the force of the rounds is a good idea. So, too, is getting down on the floor, which presents a smaller target for a shooter.
Sizemore tells his law-enforcement students to orient their bodies toward the threat. Most people doing the shooting tend to aim for the easiest target -- the torso. Since police officers wear body armor, they have the most coverage in front and back. He would not, Sizemore makes a point to add, recommend the same thing to any civilians.
In Sizemore's opinion, there's no single best place to be shot. Ballistics -- the study of the projectiles, like bullets -- is too much of a gamble. "People get shot in fatal areas and live, and others get shot in non-lethal areas and die," he says. But he believes the most painful place to be shot would be in your pelvis. The nerve bundle located there would quickly and efficiently distribute pain throughout your body. He can also think of a worst place, medically speaking: "The brain," he says. "Hearts can be repaired. There is such a thing as an artificial heart. But as far as I know there are no artificial brains."
But the brain isn't necessarily the most lethal place to be shot. From 1982 to 1993, 66 percent of patients treated at Cook County Hospital in Chicago for gunshot wounds to the head survived [source: Stone, et al.].
But if you are ever faced with a choice of where to take a bullet -- say, a choice given to you by an angry loan shark -- where should you take it? Read the next page to find out.
Number One with a Bullet
There is no existing body of work regarding the best place of the anatomy to be shot, but there are a few contenders. To understand where the best place to be shot is, you must first understand a little bit about bullets and the effects they have on the human body.
The study of what bullets do to tissue, bone and organs is called wound ballistics, and this field has come up with some definite conclusions about the destructiveness of projectiles on humans. A bullet is a carrier of force, and its purpose is to transfer that energy within the body. This energy causes all of the injuries sustained, whether directly or in a secondary manner.
The injury inflicted by a bullet is directly related to the bullet's kinetic energy. This is a measure of the bullet's weight, velocity and gravitational trajectory. The combination of the three describe how much damage a bullet will cause.
As a bullet enters the body, it causes laceration and crushing wounds. The bullet punctures tissue and bone, crushing or pushing aside anything in its path. When a bullet passes through tissue, it creates a cavity that can be 30 times wider than its track (the path it takes). This cavity closes behind the bullet less than a second after the bullet passes, but the cavitation it causes can damage nearby tissue, organs and bones via shock waves.
The type and amount of injury sustained from a bullet also depends on what a bullet encounters. Soft tissue can carry shock waves more easily than bone, but since bone is dense, it absorbs more force (and damage). Bones also splinter, causing further damage as the fragments travel through the body as projectiles themselves.
A bullet that passes through the body (creating an exit wound) generally will cause less damage than one which stays in the body, because a bullet that stays in the body transfers all of its kinetic energy (and ensures maximum damage to tissue). This is the aim of most modern ballistic design. Jacketed bullets are designed to fragment after impact, dividing their destructive power. Hollow-point and soft bullets are designed to flatten and spread, creating a wider area for their tracks and increasing the damage caused by shock waves and cavitation.
Based on this information, we can make some conclusions about the areas you might least like to take a bullet and deduce the best place from there. A bullet can shatter bone, and bone can also ensure a bullet won't leave the body. So you'd want to stay away from areas with a lot of bone mass, such as the ribs. You would also want to stay away from nerve bundles, as Ed Sizemore mentioned. And, most importantly, you'd want to keep your vital organs away from a bullet. This definitely counts your torso out and your head, too.
So it looks like your arms and legs are the best place to take a bullet. But wait: Your thighs and upper arms both feature important arteries -- your femoral and brachial arteries. If a bullet severs either one of these, the loss of blood can cause death in just a few minutes. So the legs and arms are out.
Based on their location and relative distance from vital organs, your hands or feet appear to be the best place to take a bullet. Getting shot in a foot or hand would certainly shatter most of the many bones there, and it would be an extremely painful experience, but it would pose little deadly threat. What's more, although you have plenty of bones there to shatter, the fragments are less likely to travel easily to your vital organs, like your heart. Plus, with your hands and feet as relatively thin as they are, a bullet also has a better chance of passing through your body before it transfers the full extent of its power. You might suffer a disability, but you'd be more likely to live through the experience.
For more information on bullets, medicine and related topics, visit the next page.
More Great Links
- Lemaire, Jean. "The impact of firearms on life expectancy rates in the U.S." University of Pennsylvania. September 2004. http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/ficap/forum/docs/sept04lemaire.pdf
- Leinhard, John H. "No. 774: William Beaumont." University of Houston. http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi774.htm
- MacInnis, Laura. "US most armed country with 90 guns per 100 people." Reuters. August 28, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/wtMostRead/idUSL2834893820070828
- Meagher, Sean MD and Shah, Guarang V. MD. "Gunshot injuries to the face and cranium: A radiologic view." Neurographics. 2004. http://www.neurographics.org/3/1/4/1.shtml
- Miglietta, Maurizio. "Treating trauma: What you need to know to save a life." NYU Physician. Fall 2006. http://www.med.nyu.edu/communications/publications/nyuphysician/ treating_trauma.html
- Patrick, Urey W. "Handgun wounding factors and effectiveness." Federal Bureau of Investigation. July 14, 1989. http://www.firearmstactical.com/pdf/fbi-hwfe.pdf
- Ross, Ann H. "Gunshot wounds: A summary." University of Tennessee. October 20, 1995. http://www.soton.ac.uk/~jb3/bullet/gsw.html
- Sizemore, Ed. Personal interview. December 6, 2007.
- Stone, James, et al. "Gunshot wounds to the head in civilian practice." Neurosurgery. December 1995. http://www.neurosurgery-online.com/pt/re/neurosurg/ abstract.00006123-199512000-00010.htm;jsessionid= HYpBmtJcL2Zb6nn9bxRLwt03kdLThJBQDp1366J2XGn02ccq2Rxj!- 1601909834!181195629!8091!-1
- "Annual firearms manufacturing and export report." U.S. Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms. October 1, 2007. http://www.atf.treas.gov/firearms/stats/afmer/afmer2005.pdf
- "Firearms tutorial." University of Utah School of Medicine. http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/GUNS/GUNINJ.html
- "Murder victims by weapon." Crime in the United States 2006. Federal Bureau of Investigation. September 2007. http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2006/offenses/expanded_information/ data/shrtable_07.html