Because a woman's reproductive system is so much more complex than a man's, there are more chances for infertility problems to arise. In the case of salpingitis (also known as pelvic inflammatory disease), the fallopian tubes are affected. They get inflamed, which in turn prevents eggs from reaching the uterus.
In nine out of 10 cases, salpingitis is caused by a bacterial infection such as streptococcus, staphylococcus or sexually transmitted germs such as chlamydia or gonococcus (implicated in gonorrhea). After one bout of the infection, fertility can decrease by up to 15 percent; after three bouts, this number climbs to 50 percent [source: Better Health Channel].
As this is a bacterial infection, treatment consists of a course of antibiotics, which has an 85 percent success rate [source: Better Health Channel]. It's vital to seek treatment, because the fallopian tubes can become so swollen that the inner walls stick together. This can lead to a dangerous ectopic pregnancy, where a fertilized egg becomes stuck in the tube and begins to grow. Symptoms of salpingitis include unusual vaginal discharge, pain during periods or ovulation, discomfort during intercourse, pain in the low back or abdomen, or nausea.