Author's Note: Do men really have more upper body strength than women?
I'll admit that I'm not going to be breaking through any glass ceiling in the weight lifting department anytime soon -- or ever, to be honest. I have a textbook case of female physiology with a decent amount of lower body strength (at least that's what I tell myself) and little-to-no upper body strength to speak of. Despite regularly exercising, I've never successfully completed a single pull-up my entire life. Now, thanks to my research for this article investigating the gender differences in muscle mass and distribution, I can mentally surrender to the hormonal fact that push-ups, pull-ups and even monkey bar crossings will never be in my physical wheelhouse because I simply don't have the testosterone for it. Good thing I prefer jogging anyway.
- Callaway, Ewen. "Male voices reveal owner's strength." New Scientist. June 16, 2010. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19045-male-voices-reveal-owners-strength.html
- Cross Fit. "Basic Strength Standards." 2006. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.crossfit.com/cf-journal/WLSTANDARDS.pdf
- Crowther, Greg. "Gender and endurance performance." University of Washington. August 2001. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://faculty.washington.edu/crowther/Misc/RBC/gender.shtml
- Dillner, Luisa. "Men, take note: women are the stronger sex." The Guardian. Oct. 30, 2010. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/oct/31/women-ageing-genes
- Kirkwood, Thomas. "Why Women Live Longer." Scientific American. Oct. 21, 2010. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-women-live-longer
- Leyk, D et al. "Hand-grip strength of young men, women and highly trained female athletes." European Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 99, No. 04. March 1999. (Nov. 28, 2012). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17186303
- Library of Congress. "Mush! Mush! First Woman Wins Iditarod." American Memory. March 20, 1998. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar20.html
- Maharam, Lewis G. "Running Doc: Are Women More Suited for Endurance Than Men?" Competitor. Updated June 09, 2011. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://running.competitor.com/2011/05/injuries/running-doc-are-women-more-suited-for-endurance-than-men_28063
- Miller, A.E.J. et al. "Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics." European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. Vol. 66, Issue 03. March 1993. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00235103
- Parker-Pope, Tara. "Why Women Can't Do Pull-Ups." The New York Times. Oct. 25, 2012. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/25/why-women-cant-do-pull-ups/?ref=health
- Roundy, Kirstin. "Walking the Line: Testosterone and the Athlete." Sports 'N Science. University of Utah Athletics Department and the Center for Science and Math Education. 2012. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://sportsnscience.utah.edu/performance-enhancing-drugs-technical/
- TIME. "Medicine: The Stronger Sex." Nov. 09, 1959. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811383,00.html
- University of California – Santa Barbara. "Physical Strength, Fighting Ability Revealed in Human Faces." ScienceDaily. Oct. 25, 2008. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081022135809.htm
- Zeveloff, Naomi. "World's Strongest Girl Lifts Twice Weight." The Jewish Daily Forward. July 10, 2012. (Nov. 28, 2012) http://forward.com/articles/158917/worlds-strongest-girl-lifts-twice-weight/