Health Benefits of Olive Oil


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  • Heart Benefits From Olive Oil

    Research abounds regarding the benefits of monounsaturated fat. Other studies are showing that the potent phytochemicals (those substances in plants that may have health benefits for people) in olive oil -- specifically, a group called phenolic compounds -- appear to promote good health.

    Studies have shown that a phytochemical in olive oil called hydroxytyrosol "thins" the blood. Other phytochemicals reduce inflammation of the blood vessels, prevent oxidation of fats in the bloodstream, protect blood vessel walls, and dilate the blood vessels for improved circulation.

    Cholesterol Combatant

    Olive oil boosts heart health by keeping a lid on cholesterol levels. It lowers total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Some studies show that it does not affect HDL cholesterol; others show that it slightly increases HDL levels.

    Much research has demonstrates how olive oil fights cholesterol.
    ©2007 Publications International, Ltd.
    Many studies have demonstrated
    that olive oil fights bad cholesterol.

    A 2002 article in The American Journal of Medicine reported that total cholesterol levels decrease an average of 13.4 percent and LDL cholesterol levels drop an average of 18 percent when people replace saturated fat with monounsaturated fat in their diets. These results seem to hold for middle-age and older adults who have high blood cholesterol levels.

    The polyphenolic compounds (types of phytochemicals) in olive oil appear to play a big part in protecting blood vessels. Three polyphenols, oleuropein, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol, are believed to be particularly helpful.

    Numerous studies have shown that polyphenols and monounsaturated fat help keep LDL cholesterol from being oxidized and getting stuck to the inner walls of arteries, which forms the plaque that hampers blood flow. When plaque forms in arteries, the risk of heart disease or stroke increases.

    Polyphenolic compounds are also responsible for preserving and protecting two enzymes -- glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase -- that fight free radicals in the body. Without enzymes like these, free radicals can damage healthy cells, potentially leading to the development of cancer and other serious health problems.

    Research reported in the November 2005 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology provides compelling evidence for the advantages of olive oil's polyphenolic compounds. In the study, 21 otherwise-healthy Spanish volunteers who had high blood cholesterol levels were given 2.5 tablespoons of either virgin olive oil that was rich in phenolic compounds or olive oil that had much less of these phytonutrients as part of their breakfast.

    Careful measurements for the next four hours showed that those who consumed the phenolic-rich olive oil experienced:

    • An increase in the dilation of the interior walls of blood vessels. The more dilated a vessel is, the freer the circulation and the less work the heart has to do to pump blood through the body.

    • An increase in the amount of nitric oxide in the bloodstream. Nitric oxide is a strong vasodilator (an agent that causes the blood vessels to dilate, or expand). Nitric oxide relaxes the smooth muscles that line artery walls, thus improving circulation. It also inhibits the clumping of blood cells called platelets, reducing the risk of blood clots. Oleuropein is the phytonutrient in olive oil that is responsible for stimulating the production of nitric oxide.
    Results such as these suggest that adding a small amount of phenolic-rich olive oil to the diet (or, better yet, substituting olive oil for harmful saturated fats in the diet) can make a significant impact on reducing atherosclerosis and the cascade of events that lead to heart disease.

    The researchers identified this finding as especially important because, in other studies, meals high in saturated fat, such as hamburgers and french fries, have been shown to create the opposite effect. Such meals inhibit the normal and healthy function of blood vessels and constrict blood flow.

    Taking the two sets of results together, then, further enhances support for the cardiac benefits of using olive oil in place of saturated and trans fats in the diet.

    The Mediterranean Diet

    The Mediterranean diet (one that is high in monounsaturated fat from olive oil and moderate in calories) made headlines when an Italian study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association in September 2004. The study followed two groups of 90 people who had metabolic syndrome for two years. During the study, both groups increased their activity levels by 60 percent.

    Juice vs. Seeds
    Olives are a fruit, and when you press them, you get juice. This juice is rich not only in oil but also in potent phytochemicals and several vitamins. Need another reason to choose olive oil? It's a more natural product than seed oils.

    Seeds, such as sunflower, soybean, or rapeseed (the source of canola oil), undergo much more processing to extract their oil. They are not merely crushed or pressed to remove their oil; they are typically processed with heat and sometimes chemicals to gain access to their tiny oil reserves. Even "cold-pressed" seed oils require heat of up to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, seed oil is more highly processed than what we get from simple olive juice.

    One study group was given detailed instructions about how to increase the whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and olive oil in their diets. The other 90 subjects consumed a "control" diet (50 percent to 60 percent of calories from carbohydrates, 15 percent to 20 percent of calories from protein, and less than 30 percent of calories from fat). After two years, those on the Mediterranean diet showed improvement in cholesterol levels, significantly less C-reactive protein in their blood, less insulin resistance, more weight loss, and improvements in the condition of their blood-vessel walls.

    A follow-up study two years later revealed only 40 of the original 90 people on the Mediterranean diet still had metabolic syndrome, compared with 78 people in the control group.

    What Is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increases the risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. In general, if a person has three or more of the conditions listed below, he or she likely has metabolic syndrome (which is sometimes called insulin-resistance syndrome).

    • Excess weight, especially in the abdominal area

    • High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels

    • High blood pressure

    • Insulin resistance (the body doesn't respond to insulin appropriately)

    • "Thick" blood that is prone to clumping and clotting (as indicated by high levels of a substance called plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the blood)

    • Inflamed blood vessels (as indicated by high levels in the blood of a compound named C-reactive protein)
    More Heartfelt Evidence

    A French study published in the International Journal of
    Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders in June 2003 added to the evidence in favor of olive oil as a heart helper. Thirty-two people ate either a high-carbohydrate diet or one that was high in monounsaturated fat.

    After eight weeks, the people who consumed lots of monounsaturated fats had better triglyceride levels than those participants who were on the diet high in carbohydrates. Those who ate more monounsaturated fat also had less oxidative stress, a condition in which there are more free radicals than the body can handle and/or low levels of antioxidants. This condition puts the arteries at risk of damage and encourages heart disease (among other unhealthy effects).

    The diet rich in monounsaturated fat also appeared to protect against smooth-muscle-cell proliferation, another risk factor for atherosclerosis.

    Olive Oil -- A Boon to Blood Pressure

    An Italian study published in the December 2003 issue of the Journal of Hypertension reviewed numerous research projects that looked at various factors that affect blood pressure. The review indicated that unsaturated fat reduced blood pressure. The researchers went on to say that olive oil in particular was uniquely able to reduce high blood pressure -- much more than sunflower oil.

    A large study that appeared a year later in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at the diets of more than 20,000 Greeks who did not have high blood pressure when the study began.

    The study found that those who ate the typical Mediterranean diet had lower blood pressure. Further, when the effects of olive oil consumption were compared to those of vegetable oil consumption, olive oil was shown to have a more positive impact on blood pressure.

    Spain is another country where olive oil is a staple in many households. People there typically use olive oil, sunflower oil (a mostly polyunsaturated oil), or a mixture of the two. Researchers in one Spanish study wanted to learn the role each of these oils played in blood pressure, as well as how the oils held up to cultural cooking methods in which oil is heated to a high temperature for frying and later reused several times.

    Because it helps your health in so many ways, olive oil should be in everyone's kitchen.
    ©2007 Publications International, Ltd.
    Because it helps your health in so many ways,
    olive oil should be a part of everyone's kitchen.

    The study, which was published in the December 2003 issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, examined samples of cooking oil from the kitchens of 538 study participants. Researchers measured the blood pressure and conducted blood tests on those participants and nearly 500 more "control" subjects. Here's what they found:
    • Olive oil was resistant to heat degradation.

    • Mixed oil and sunflower oil degraded more than olive oil alone when heated and reused.

    • Those who used sunflower oil, whether or not it had deteriorated, had higher blood pressure levels than those who used olive oil.

    • The higher the monounsaturated fat consumption, the lower the blood pressure tended to be.
    At the end of the study, the researchers concluded that because olive oil does a better job of maintaining its healthful properties and because it positively influences blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels, it should be the oil of choice in everyone's kitchen.

    Elsewhere in the body, olive oil helps control inflammation, which causes arthritis, asthma, and other adverse conditions. Find out how on the next page.

    To learn more about the topics covered on this article, check out the links below:
    This information is solely for informational purposes. IT IS NOT INTENDED TO PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. Neither the Editors of Consumer Guide (R), Publications International, Ltd., the author nor publisher take responsibility for any possible consequences from any treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary modification, action or application of medication which results from reading or following the information contained in this information. The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine, and this information does not replace the advice of your physician or other health care provider. Before undertaking any course of treatment, the reader must seek the advice of their physician or other health care provider.
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