But what is the purpose of sleep? Despite the obvious nature of that question, scientists do not really agree on why we sleep. There are several theories:
- Adaptive Theory This theory holds that sleep improves an animal's likelihood of survival. Those with sleeping habits appropriate to their environment are most likely to survive. Nocturnal species have very different sleep habits than diurnal hunters, for example, making them more likely to flourish.
- Energy Conservation Theory Fast-moving animals with high metabolisms sleep more than those that burn calories more slowly, thereby conserving their energy for sprints.
- Restorative Theory According to this theory, the body restores itself during sleep. Researchers know that neurotoxins are neutralized during sleep, and have reported that cells divide, tissue synthesizes and growth hormones are released during slow-wave (or non-REM) sleep. Athletes, for example, spend more time in slow-wave sleep (Stages 3 and 4) than others, and children and young people spend a larger portion of their sleep in slow-wave sleep than older people.
- Programming-Reprogramming Theory This theory holds that unimportant information is "erased" and important information is locked into more permanent memory. Infants, who are acquiring information at a rate faster than at any other point during life, sleep most. All sleep may not be equal for reinforcing learning, however. Recent research indicates that REM sleep may be the key. Babies and children experience a larger portion of REM sleep than adults, and adults who are in school or undergoing intense intellectual training increase their amount of REM sleep. When people are deprived of REM sleep they are less adept at creative problem solving.
Our biological "clock" largely corresponds to the cycle of the day, and in fact the term "circadian" means "about a day." The cycle of wakefulness and sleep is tied closely to core body temperature: the higher the temperature, the more alert we are; conversely, when it reaches its low point, sleepiness may be irresistible. The body's rhythms seem based on two sleep periods each day: a long one through the night and a second short period in the afternoon, when many people nap or at least feel less alert than at other points during the day.
Researchers have found that when people are removed from any outside reminders of time (no clocks, no outside light, etc.) their "clock" seems to be set approximately for a 25-hour day. When one's personal biological clock gets out of sync with society's clock, sleep problems can ensue.