Plasma protein therapies (PPTs) are considered biologic medicines, which means that unlike many of the common drugs we take which have been manufactured through chemical ingredients, these are protein-based therapies developed from human genes.
PPTs are typically given through an infusion or injection. RH-negative pregnant women, for example, receive a type of PPT called hyperimmune globulin therapy. Rhogam is a product made with human plasma and given to both mother and newborn to prevent fetal complications; hyperimmune globulin therapy is also used to treat patients with infectious diseases including rabies, tetanus and liver conditions such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, as well as those who undergo organ transplant.
Human serum albumin therapy, also a form of PPT, is used to treat burn victims as well as shock and trauma patients; it's also a relied-upon therapy in the emergency room and during major surgeries.
Plasma proteins are also used as therapy in genetic bleeding and clotting disorders, including Von Willebrand disease, antithrombin disorders and hemophilia. It takes a lot of plasma to make a plasma protein therapy product, and as many as 1,200 plasma donations can be required to treat just one hemophiliac patient for one year [source: DonatingPlasma].
Collected plasma is processed before it's turned into a plasma product; it can take up to 9 months between the time the plasma was donated and the time it's used in a therapeutic product [source: Baxter]. After being screened for known infectious diseases (including HIV, hepatitis and other transmissible diseases), the plasma first goes through something called the blood plasma fractionation process.
Fractionation was developed during World War II by biochemist Edwin Cohn, who pioneered a method for separating the plasma protein serum albumin from whole blood, a life-saving alternative therapy for those who were wounded during battle and needed plasma. Today's technologies for separating blood components include centrifugation and filtration which spins blood to separate the liquid and solid components, thermal and chemical inactivation procedures, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, nanofiltration and chromatography. Since the 1980s, some plasma proteins have been successfully cloned, including factor VIII.
Author's Note: How Plasma Donation Works
Fun research fact: Just as there's a universal red cell donor, type 0 negative, there's also a universal plasma donor; anyone with the AB blood type (positive or negative) is considered a universal plasma donor, which means any person, no matter what their blood type is, can be transfused with plasma donated someone with an AB blood type. Only about 4 percent of the population has type AB blood, though, making universal plasma donors in high demand -- luckily, any type of blood can donate plasma.
More Great Links
- Access Biologicals. "Physicians FAQS." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.accessclinical.com/faqs/
- American Red Cross. "Donating Blood." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood
- American Red Cross. "Learn About Blood." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-components
- Baxter. "How Plasma-Derived Treatments are Produced." http://www.baxter.com/press_room/factsheets/plasma_therapies_overview.html
- Biography. "Edwin Cohn." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.biography.com/people/edwin-cohn-9252667
- BioLife Plasma Services. "Are You Eligible to Donate with BioLife?" (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.biolifeplasma.com/become-donor/eligibility.html
- Blood Centers of the Pacific. "56 Facts About Blood and Blood Donation." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.bloodcenters.org/blood-donation/facts-about-blood-donation/
- DonatingPlasma. "Donor Frequently Asked Questions." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.donatingplasma.org/donation/donor-faq
- Dugdale III, David C. "Albumin." National Institutes of Health. Feb. 13, 2013. (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003480.htm
- GE Healthcare Life Sciences. "Blood Plasma Fractionation." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/catalog/en/GELifeSciences-us/applications/blood-plasma-fractionation/
- GEA Pharma Systems. "Plant for processing of Blood Plasma." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.gea-ps.com/npsportal/cmsdoc.nsf/WebDoc/webb8qpmxa
- Lusher, Jeanne M. "Hemophilia: From Plasma to Recombinant Factors." 50 Years in Hematology: Research That Revolutionized Patient Care. American Society of Hematology. December 2008. (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.hematology.org/publications/50-years-in-hematology/4737.aspx
- MedicineNet.com. "Biological Therapy." April 16, 2002. (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.medicinenet.com/biological_therapy/article.htm
- Nebraska Community Blood Bank. "General Donation Facts." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.ncbb.org/general-donation-facts
- Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association (PPTA). (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.pptaglobal.org/
- Ross-Flanigan, Nancy. "Gammaglobulin." Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health. 2002. (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/gammaglobulin
- Talecris Plasma Resources. (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.talecrisplasma.com/
- The Foundation for American's Blood Centers. "Blood Donation FAQs." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://www.americasblood.org/donate-blood/blood-donation-faqs.aspx
- The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. "Facts About Blood." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/blood_disorders/facts_about_blood/Pages/index.aspx
- UCLA Health. "Can I Donate? Eligibility." (Dec. 21, 2013) http://gotblood.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=21