Orthodontists estimate that roughly 45 percent of children need braces to fix functional problems such as a misaligned bite, but up to 75 percent of kids could benefit from them to straighten their teeth and improve the shape of their face. Orthodontists commonly recommend dental braces to fight one of two problems: tooth crowding, in which the teeth are bunched together without adequate room for adult teeth to grow in, and jaw misalignment, which includes both an overbite (where top teeth extend way beyond the bottom teeth) and underbite (the lower jaw protrudes out so the lower teeth cover the upper teeth) [source: Amley & Amley].
While many people choose to treat these conditions (collectively referred to as malocclusions) for cosmetic and self-esteem reasons, there are a number of other real benefits to wearing braces. Straight teeth allow you to bite, chew and speak more effectively, and they're easier to clean. Straight teeth also take unnecessary pressure off of gums, which can lead to a healthier mouth.
Additionally, the American Association of Orthodontists says that people who want to straighten and uncrowd their teeth but who are worried about pain and sporting a "metal mouth" have nothing to fear because treatment is now more comfortable and more successful for everyone, regardless of age [source: AAO].
However, for many people, having perfect teeth is a luxury that may not be affordable. Braces, including the cost of the hardware and orthodontist treatments, typically run between $4,000 and $8,000. While some insurance carriers provide partial coverage for the treatment, others provide none at all [source: LA Times].
Despite the various oral health benefits of straight teeth, the primary reason for braces is cosmetic. Braces may positively enhance a child's self confidence by improving his smile, and most orthodontists say that crossbites (a tooth or group of teeth that's closer to the cheek or tongue than its upper or lower counterpart) and underbites are more easily corrected if addressed early. Nevertheless, it appears that in most cases, a child who forgoes braces will not suffer serious health consequences as a result [source: Hurt].
So, the answer, as is the case with many of life's questions, to whether your child needs braces is, "it depends." Kids with severely crooked teeth or other oral problems should probably get braces to avoid the serious consequences that these conditions can bring; others should weigh the benefits and costs in consultation with an orthodontist.