Poor dental hygiene is one of the primary causes of gingivitis. A diet that's high in sugar, coupled with irregular brushing and flossing, allows plaque to build up quickly on and around the gum line. This condition can also be caused or worsened by irritation from ill-fitting dental devices such as dentures or braces. Misaligned teeth pose a two-fold threat to the gums: Teeth that are crowded or out of alignment make proper oral care more challenging and more difficult to remove plaque. These teeth can also serve as an irritant in the same way as a poorly fitted denture, resulting in an increased risk for gingivitis [sources: SUNY, University of Maryland].
You may also be surprised to know that brushing or flossing too vigorously is a leading cause of gingivitis. Too much pressure irritates the gums and may leave your mouth more vulnerable to plaque and bacteria. Hormonal changes, illness and even certain types of medications can also contribute to gingivitis [source: University of Maryland].
Fortunately, this condition is completely reversible if you catch it before periodontitis sets in [source: University of Maryland]. While you can't remove tartar from below the gum lines on your own, a dentist can clean the area and reverse the effects of gingivitis. Your dentist may also prescribe antibacterial mouthwash or medications to ensure all bacteria and toxins have been removed.
Of course, prevention remains the most effective treatment against this disease. Schedule a checkup with your dentist at least once a year, and maintain effective oral care habits. Brush and floss at least twice a day using a soft-bristled brush, and use gentle pressure while doing so. Stick to a healthy diet, and minimize consumption of sticky foods like soda and candy. If you experience severe or chronic gingivitis, talk to your doctor about any medications you may be taking to determine if they could be the cause of your oral health woes. Finally, replace any dental devices that don't fit properly, and consider investing in orthodontic work to correct misaligned teeth [source: University of Maryland].